The human papillomavirus is present, according to various sources, in 70–80% of the population, especially in women. Usually, he does not bother the “owner” until some kind of malfunction occurs in the body or the immune system weakens, and this is exactly what happens to the female body during pregnancy. Why do papillomas appear , in an already difficult period, why are they dangerous for mom and baby?
- 1 What causes HPV in pregnant women?
- 2 Factors that provoke HPV
- 3 Signs and locations
- 4 Does it affect the course of pregnancy?
- 5 Consequences for the child
- 6 Which doctor should be consulted?
- 7 Treatment regimen
- 8 Is it necessary to remove growths during this period?
- 9 HPV prevention and vaccination
What causes HPV in pregnant women?
One of the main reasons for the activation of the virus, of course, is a decrease in immunity. All the forces of the body are aimed at ensuring the growth and development of the baby, so the protection of the expectant mother is significantly weakened.
In addition, there are several other provoking factors:
- Hormonal changes . An excessive amount of certain hormones can lead to the growth of epidermal cells.
- Mechanical action and friction of the skin . The weight of a woman is growing rapidly, the old clothes become tight, folds form on the skin. In this regard, when walking and moving, rubbing of the skin occurs, and papillomas appear in these places.
Regardless of the cause that caused the appearance of papilloma, papillomatosis always indicates that a virus is present in the body.
Factors that provoke HPV
Since the immune system is weakened, any external effect on the body can be detrimental to health and provoke the growth of epithelial tissue.
First of all, promiscuous sex life has an impact. HPV is transmitted mainly through sexual contact, so if the expectant mother does not have one permanent partner, the risk of developing the disease increases.
Bad habits such as smoking, alcohol and drug use are another significant risk factor.
Proper nutrition is of great importance, because with an excess or lack of certain substances, all organs and systems suffer, which affects the condition of the skin, the weight of the expectant mother, and the health of blood vessels.
The presence of other viruses in the body (for example, HIV) increases the risk of developing papilloma, as well as the presence of various endocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus).
Signs and locations
Everyone’s organisms are different, so the size, structure, density and color of papilloma can vary significantly in women. In general, we can say that neoplasms are always noticeable if they are on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, painless when pressed, often soft.
Favorite places of papilloma in pregnant women: face, neck, intimate organs, chest, armpits.
On the neck
Papillomas on the neck during pregnancy are not uncommon. Most often they occur on the sides, and on the front and back of the neck are less common.
The formations have a papillary structure, small size (1–5 mm), slightly narrowed at the base. Sometimes, on the contrary, they can be distinguished by their pointed shape. Usually the growths are slightly darker than the color of the skin.
The danger of neoplasms lies in the fact that they are easily damaged by jewelry, clothing (collars, scarves), mechanical action during hygiene procedures and combing.
On the cervix
Papilloma in the genital area, on the cervix in particular, is a common problem for pregnant women. It is impossible to see them on your own; for diagnosis, at least an examination in a gynecological chair is required.
The danger of this localization is the rapid growth rate of neoplasms, since heat and humidity are the most favorable conditions for the reproduction of the virus.
Among the signs are itching, burning, discomfort in the intimate area during sex, the appearance of atypical discharge. If cervical papillomatosis is not associated with any infection, as a rule, the disease is asymptomatic, and this is the most successful position for the expectant mother.
On the chest
Neoplasms on the chest, mainly in the area of the halos, are soft to the touch, small, but have a dark color, up to black. If the papillomas are exclusively outside, they do not bother the woman in labor, there are no accompanying symptoms.
If the foci appeared inside the mammary glands, the patient complains of discharge from the nipples, tissue thickening, burning and itching. Therefore, when growths appear on the outside, diagnostics will be required to determine if there are papilloma inside. If the doctor confirms the presence of the latter under the skin, breastfeeding will be impossible.
on the nipples
Papillomas can take any place on the chest, but are still more common on the nipples.
The neoplasm in this place quickly increases in size and causes some discomfort in wearing underwear, the chest itches, whitish discharge appears.
External papillomas are easily distinguishable: they are soft, can be single and multiple, have shades from flesh to dark brown. On examination, the doctor necessarily probes the chest for the presence of internal papillomas.
Does it affect the course of pregnancy?
There is no definite answer to this question, because, firstly, the immunity and health status of different women is different: in some, the papilloma disappears on its own after childbirth, in others, the virus combines with an infection and can lead to unpleasant consequences.
Secondly, there are diametrically opposed opinions of doctors regarding the harm of papillomavirus during pregnancy. Some believe that HPV activity can lead to miscarriage.
Papillomas in the intimate area (vagina, cervix, labia) represent the greatest danger, since they cause discomfort to a woman when walking and can be a “magnet” for various infections.
It is also unsafe if the papilloma is accidentally (or deliberately) damaged, since the violation of the integrity of the skin in conjunction with a weakened immune system is a “gateway” for other pathogens to enter the body (viruses, fungi, bacteria).
The psychological aspect is no less important: a woman will be nervous, worried, worried about possible harm to her and the child, and stressful situations during pregnancy are unacceptable.
In general, the danger of papilloma during pregnancy is often multiplied, and the disease disappears after childbirth without a trace.
Consequences for the child
The mother’s papillomavirus is very rarely reflected on the child. This manifests itself most often in papillomatosis of the larynx and respiratory tract, but this pathology is diagnosed in isolated cases.
Even if this happens, as a rule, the child’s body copes with the pathology on its own and the disease passes without a trace.
Which doctor should be consulted?
Papillomas in various parts of the body require medical advice. It is best to consult a dermatologist. If there is a suspicion of cervical papillomas or neoplasms are localized in the area of \u200b\u200bthe intimate organs, you need to visit a gynecologist.
Papillomas during pregnancy are treated infrequently: after diagnosis, the doctor usually recommends taking precautions so as not to damage the growth, prescribes preventive examinations to monitor the condition of the papilloma.
However, sometimes treatment is required if the risk from it is less than from the possible consequences of the disease (for example, if the growth is localized in the genital area).
The drug is non-toxic and completely safe for women in labor, it allows you to stop the growth of the neoplasm and the spread of the virus, and over time, the outgrowth disappears.
The antiviral and immunomodulatory gel “Infagel” prevents the growth of papilloma and the growth of atypical cells. The use of the gel is permissible from the 2nd trimester.
Less commonly prescribed solution “Solcoderm” and gel “Panavir”.
Drug therapy is determined only by a doctor and always takes into account the need for treatment in a particular case.
Surgical intervention during pregnancy is undesirable, however, single formations in a place remote from the abdomen (neck, face, hands) are allowed to be removed. Currently, traditional excision, laser removal or removal with a radioknife, liquid nitrogen are used for this.
Each of these methods has contraindications and disadvantages, so the doctor assesses the risks, weighs all the pros and cons, reports the possible consequences to the woman in labor, after which a decision is made regarding the need for surgical intervention.
The use of folk remedies
Folk remedies are the safest way to deal with papillomas during pregnancy, but their use should also be agreed with the doctor.
Traditional methods include:
- A compress of grated raw potatoes (applied daily at night).
- Apple cider vinegar compress (applied every 12 hours for 3-5 days).
- A compress from a mixture of vinegar, garlic and rye flour (the ingredients are mixed and softened, the compress is applied for 3 days).
Is it necessary to remove growths during this period?
Removal of papilloma during pregnancy is not mandatory, except in exceptional cases. For example, flat warts on the arms and legs, soft growths on the face, neck and chest, armpits, abdomen, back, spitz on the soles and palms do not need to be removed.
If, after the examination, the doctor concludes that the removal of papilloma is not necessary, it is better to postpone treatment until the postpartum period. However, you should be aware of the possible risks that can lead to undesirable consequences:
- Mechanical impact with clothing or rubbing while walking can damage the papilloma, after which severe pain occurs and bleeding opens. Also, the virus can spread to neighboring areas of the skin and lead to the appearance of new papillomas.
- The presence of the virus in the body and its activity can lead to an exacerbation of chronic diseases, so you need to take precautions so as not to get a new infection: avoid long walks in cold weather, observe hygiene measures, use barrier contraceptives during sex.
- Neglecting one’s own health during the formation of papilloma is unacceptable, therefore, it is necessary to be regularly examined by a doctor (gynecologist, dermatologist), monitor the change in color and growth of the papilloma, and if new disturbing symptoms appear, be sure to visit a specialist.
- Self-medication can aggravate the situation, therefore it is impossible to prescribe drugs, including folk remedies.
Most often, papillomas disappear without a trace after childbirth as suddenly as they appeared. However, the disease can result in unpleasant consequences, including:
- Child infection.
- The development of a benign formation into a malignant one (cancer).
- Suppuration and bleeding of papilloma, followed by infection and complication of pregnancy and childbirth.
- The growth of papilloma in the genital area can become an obstacle to natural childbirth. In this case, a caesarean section is used.
HPV prevention and vaccination
Prevention of papillomatosis consists in observing simple precautions: giving up bad habits, changing the diet with a predominance of healthy foods rich in vitamins, avoiding promiscuity, personal hygiene and regular visits to the doctor for preventive examinations.
Vaccination against HPV is safe at the stage of pregnancy planning: a course of vaccinations is required, after which conception is permissible. However, after the fertilization has happened, the vaccines can only be not only ineffective, but also unsafe.
It is not recommended to purposefully vaccinate, but if the vaccination has occurred, and the woman did not know about the pregnancy, this does not threaten either the fetus or the woman.
The human papillomavirus can be in a woman’s body for decades without letting you know about yourself. Decreased immunity during pregnancy increases the likelihood of virus activation, however, in most cases, papillomatosis does not affect the mother’s condition and the development of the baby. The main thing is to undergo an examination on time and strictly follow all the recommendations of the doctor.